There is a famous saying that “Al-Shaar Diwan-ul-Arab” means Arab poetry is the office of Arabs.
The word “office” means that it contains Arab geography, Arab history, Arab culture, Arab society, Arab ideas and superstitions, Arab domestic and national characteristics. If one studies Arab poetry, there is nothing about Arabs and Arabs that cannot be found in it.
In Arab poetry, the names of many places come in step by step. For example: Yathrib, Damascus, Basra, Qansrin, Makkah, Baalbak, Inner (Syria), Najd, Yamama, Sana’a, Taif, Hazra Mut, etc. There are hundreds of villages and small towns whose names appear in the words of Arab poets. For example, Hazan, Lui, Dakavik, Hamal, Tuzha, Jadis, Asajal, Masama, Silsalin, Muqara, etc.
The names of many mountains also appear in his poems. For example, Aja, Salma. Kuikb, Lahim, Sattar, Hail, Majimer, Yazbal, Batir, Qatn, Tharam, etc.
There are no rivers in Arabia, but there are many rainwater channels and springs. Their names also appear in Arab poetry. For example, Sajal, Safwan, Bahima, Darjaljal etc.
There are also names of many valleys and forests found in Arabic poetry. For example, Ghabait forest, Ghamir forest, Jawa valley, Bataha valley etc.
Many ranches and pastures are also named. For example: Waqba, Marj, Rahat, Hazra etc. There are many places which had special fame and something or the other was attributed to them. For example, Tambala is a fertile city in Yemen. His fertility and youth were famous. Tabi was the name of a village, where a special type of insect was very soft and delicate with white color and red head. These insects were called asroo. Inland was a town in Syria, famous for its wine.
Arabia had special forests, where tigers lived. Their names are as follows. Khazia, Sharia, Khafaf, Afrin. Khyber fort was famous. It has also been mentioned in Arab poetry because a kind of deadly fever spread there.
Akaz is the name of a place. which was between Nakhla and Taif. A bazaar used to be held here for twenty days from 1st Dhu Qaida. Arab poets used to come here every year and express their pride. Zaria was a village near Basria, where birds of prey abounded. Jawa is a place where wild Zardrang cows used to graze in the valley and a bird called Chikaki was also frequently found there. Khat Yamama was a famous place, where fine spears were sold and they were called Khati spears.
The country of Basra was a city in Syria, where the sword was made of pure steel and was broad. Hajar is a city in Yemen, where dates were famous. Wajda was a place whose forest was full of wild Nile cows. The white deer here were also famous. Wadi Saidia Hamar is a valley in Yemen. It was very green before but once lightning burnt it to dust. From that time every deserted place was likened to Hamar Valley.
Adoli was a village in Bahrain, where boats were built. Tanuh was a village. Nile cows were also famous here. Dumta Al-Jandal butter was famous. Apart from these, Yemeni silk sheets and double-edged swords and Syrian paper and fine silk cloths were famous. Eastern swords also came from Syria.
Deserts and inns are frequently mentioned in Arabic poetry. Mention of the seasons, intense heat and scorching sun, sometimes cold rainy nights, and signs of famine in winter are frequently found in Arabic poetry. The north wind was called north, and the south wind was called south. The east wind was called Saba and the west wind was called Dabur. Nikia, a wind blowing which was felt as a sign of famine. The poor used to walk by looking at the stars in the journey of narrations. Banat al-Naish was called the star of Syria and Suhail was called the star of Yemen. Farqdin and Kakshan have also been mentioned repeatedly.
(Excerpt from Syed Wahiduddin Saleem’s article)