Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité(Liberty, Equality, Fraternity)Anthem: "La Marseillaise"

Location du Metropolitan
  France (dark green)– on thé European continent (light vert  dark grey)– in the European Union (light green)

(and biggest city)Paris48°51.4′N 2°21.05′EOfficial languagesFrenchDemonymFrenchGovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic - PresidentEmmanuel Macron - Prime MinisterÉdouard PhilippeLegislatureParliament - Upper HouseSenate - Lower HouseNational AssemblyFormation - Francia486 (Unification by Clovis)  - West Francia843 (Treaty of Verdun)  - Current constitution5 October 1958 (5th Republic) EU accession25 in march 1957Area - Total<1>674,843 km² (41st)260,558 sq mi  - Metropolitan France - IGN<2>551,695 km²213,010 sq mi - Cadastre<3>543,965 km²210,026  sq miPopulation (2017 estimate) - Total<1>67,013,000<4> (20th) - Metropolitan France64,880,000 (22nd) - Density<5>116/km² (89th)301/sq miGDP (PPP)2017 estimate - Total$2.835 trillion<6> (10th) - Per capita$43,760<6> (26th)GDP (nominal)2017 estimate - Total$2.583 trillion<6> (7th) - Per capita$39,869<6> (22nd)Gini (2013)30.1 CurrencyEuro,<7> CFP franc<8>  (EUR, XPF) Time zoneCET<5> (UTC+1) - Summer (DST)CEST<5> (UTC+2)Internet<9>Calling code<<+331>>1The abroad regions et collectivities form part of the français telephone number is numbered plan, but have their own nation calling codes: Guadeloupe +590; Martinique +596; français Guiana +594, Réunion and Mayotte +262; heilig Pierre et Miquelon +508. The overseas territories room not part of the french telephone numbering plan; their nation calling codes are: nouveau Caledonia +687, français Polynesia +689; Wallis et Futuna +6812Spoken largely in abroad territories

France, officially auto French Republic, is a nation whose metropolitan territory is situated in western Europe and that likewise comprises miscellaneous overseas islands et territories located in est différent continents. Français people often refer à Metropolitan France ont L"Hexagone (The "Hexagon") because de the geometric shape of its territory.

Vous lisez ce: Provinces et regions de l ancienne france slam

The french Republic is a unitary semi-presidential republic with more than 200 years du democratic traditions, et about 500 years ont a unified European state.

France ranks among thé world"s most influential centers of récolte development. It is thé place de origin of the french language et civil regulation forms auto basis ns the legitimate systems ns many countries. The pays was the center of the français Empire, and the birthplace du the french Revolution. French political et social ideas influenced Europe et America.

Christianity take it root in la france in the seconde century, and became sauce soja firmly established that france obtained the title "Eldest daughter de the Church," et the french would take on this oui justification for calling us "the Most chrétien Kingdom du France." Later france produced a series du philosophers noted à la radical skepticism, et atheism.




The surname "France" comes from Latin Francia, which literally means "land of the Franks" or "Frankland." france is bordered par Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra, and Spain. Cette is likewise linked to the United Kingdom de the Channel Tunnel, which passes underneath auto English Channel. La corse lies éteindre the Mediterranean coast.

While Metropolitan la france is located in ouest Europe, la france also has a num of areas in phibìc America, auto Caribbean, south America, auto southern Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, et Antarctica. This territories ont varying forms du government varying from abroad department to overseas collectivity.

Metropolitan france covers 213,010 square miles (551,695 carré kilometers), making it the largest nation in area in thé European Union, being seul slightly larger than Spain, or slightly less than the size du Texas, in auto United States.

France possesses a broad variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north et west à mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, thé Massif quartier général in auto southcentral and Pyrenees in thé southwest. At 15,770 feet (4807 meters) over sea-level, the highest point in occidental Europe, mont Blanc, is located in thé Alps nous the border between France and Italy.

Metropolitan france lies within the northern temperate zone. Thé north and northwest ont a warm climate, however, a combination of mare rome influences, latitude and la taille produce a varied climate in the rest of the country. In auto southeast a Mediterranean climate prevails. In the west, auto climate is predominantly oceanic v a high level of rainfall, mild winters and cool summers. Inland thé climate becomes much more continental through hot, stormy summers, cooler winters et less rain. Auto climate ns the Alps et other mountainous regions are greatly alpine in nature with the alors of days through temperatures listed below freezing end 150 per year et snowcover lasting for up venir six months.

France has extensive river systems such oui the Loire, thé Garonne, thé Seine and the Rhône, i beg your pardon divides the Massif centre from auto Alps et flows into thé Mediterranean Sea at the Camargue. Auto lowest mission in france is 6.5 feet (two meters) below sea level.

A surtout divide, to run from auto southern end ns the vogène down thé eastern and southeastern edge de the Massif central to the noire Mountains, is the source ns most of the rivers du the larger, occidental part du the country, including thé Seine et the Loire. Other henchmen rivers are auto Garonne, flowing from the Pyrenees, et the Rhône et the Rhine, originating in the Alps.

France has forests ns chestnut et beech in the géant Central, juniper and dwarf pine tree in auto sub-alpine zone, v pine forests and various oaks in thé south. Eucalyptus from Australia and dwarf pines abound in Provence, when olive trees, vines, mulberry, fig trees, as well ont laurel, wild herbs, and maquis scrub grow in thé Mediterranean area.

Brown bear, chamois, marmot, et alpine hare habitent in the Pyrenees et the Alps. Polecats, marten, wild boar, and various deer live in the forests. Hedgehog, shrew, fox, weasel, bat, squirrel, badger, rabbit, mouse, otter, and beaver room common. Birds incorporate warblers, thrushes, magpies, owls, buzzards, et gulls. There are storks in Alsace, eagles and falcons in auto mountains, pheasants and partridge in auto south. Flamingos, terns, buntings, herons, et egrets are uncovered in auto Mediterranean zone. Auto rivers save on computer eels, pike, perch, carp, roach, salmon, and trout, when lobster et crayfish are found in the Mediterranean Sea.

France"s herbal resources includes coal, acier ore, bauxite, fish, timber, potash, et zinc. Organic hazards incorporate flooding, avalanches, et forest fires. Environmental issues include forêt damage from mountain rain, aviation pollution from industrial et vehicle emissions, water air pollution from metropolitan wastes, and agricultural run-off.

Paris, the capital city, is situated nous the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart du the Île-de-France region. The ville of paris had an estimated population ns 2,153,600 within its administrative limits in 2006. The paris urban area extends well beyond the administration city limits et has a population du 9.93 million. Année important settlement for more than two millennia, paris is today one de the world"s top business et cultural centers, and its conséquences sur in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science et the arts toutes les personnes contribute à its status as one ns the world"s major globale cities.




The Menec alignments, auto most famous megalithic terre amongst the Carnac stones.


The Neanderthals, thé earliest Homo sapiens venir occupy Europe, room thought to have arrived there approximately 300,000 B.C.E., marqué seem to ont died out passant par about passant par 30,000 B.C.E. The earliest contemporary humans—Cro-Magnons—entered leurope  (including France) approximately 40,000 years ago during a longue interglacial period, when leurope  was reasonably warm, et food was plentiful. They brought with them sculpture, engraving, painting, corps ornamentation, music and the painstaking decoration ns utilitarian objects. Some ns the oldest works of de lart in auto world, such as the tunnel paintings at Lascaux in southerly France, room datable venir shortly after this migration.

During thé Neolithic period (ca. 4500 B.C.E.–1700 B.C.E.), i beg your pardon is characterized passant par the adoption de agriculture, auto development ns pottery and more complex, bigger settlements, there was année expansion de peoples indigenous southwest Asia right into Europe. From thé Neolithic to auto Bronze lâge (2000-800 B.C.E.), Indo-European et Proto-Celtic peoples spread across un film western Europe. De 800 B.C.E., thé Hallstatt people, who were warriors and shepherds from the Alpine region, introduced the techniques du working through iron. In the fifth century B.C.E., the la Tène culture gradually transformed into Celtic culture.


Covering gros parts de modern job France, Belgium, and northwest Germany, Gaul was inhabited by many Celtic tribes whom the romans referred to oui Gauls and who spoke thé Gaulish language. Nous the reduced Garonne the toutes les personnes spoke an archaic language related venir Basque, auto Aquitanian language. The Celts established cities such ont Lutetia Parisiorum (Paris) et Burdigala (Bordeaux) while thé Aquitanians established Tolosa (Toulouse).

Long avant any roman settlements, Greek navigators cleared up in what would come to be Provence. Auto Phoceans founded de nombreux cities such oui Massalia (Marseilles) and Nicaea (Nice), bringing them in venir conflict with the neighboring Celts et Ligurians. Auto Celts us often battled with Aquitanians and Germans, and a Gaulish war band led by Brennus invaded rome circa 390 or 387 B.C.E. Following thé Battle of the Allia. Once Hannibal Barca fought the Romans, hey recruited numerous Gaulish mercenaries that fought nous his side at Cannae. Ce was this Gaulish dintervention that caused novel Republic to annex Provence in 121 B.C.E. In spite of Gaulish opposition led par Vercingetorix, thé Overking ns the Warriors, Gauls succumbed à the roman onslaught; thé Gauls had actually some success at sapin at Gergovia, marqué were ultimately beat at Alesia 52 B.C.E.

Roman Gaul

Roman Gaul consisted of année area de provincial régner in the roman Empire, in contemporary day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. Novel control de the area lasted for 600 years. Auto Roman empire began that takeover of what was Celtic Gaul in 121 B.C.E., when it conquered et annexed auto southern reaches du the area. Julius Caesar completed the task passant par defeating thé Celtic people in auto Gallic Wars de 58-51 B.C.E.. The romans displaced populations in order à prevent local identities venir become a danger to roman control. The roman divided Gaul right into several provinces, and founded urban such as Lugdunum (Lyon) et Narbonensis (Narbonne). Thé Gauls at some point adopted roman speech (Latin, indigenous which the french language evolved) et Roman culture. Auto Roman gouvernance finally collapsed ont remaining troops were withdrawn southeast à protect Italy. In between 455 et 475, thé Visigoths, the Burgundians, and the Franks assumed puissance in Gaul.

Clovis unites Franks

Clovis i (c. 466 – 511) thrived his father Childeric je in 481 as King ns the Salian Franks, who occupied thé area west of the lower Rhine, v their quartier général around Tournai et Cambrai along auto modern frontier in between France et Belgium. In 486, Clovis je defeated Syagrius at Soissons et subsequently unified most of northern and central Gaul under his rule. In 496, Clovis convert to roman Catholicism, as opposed to thé Arianism common among Germanic peoples, at the instigation ns his wife, thé Burgundian Clotilda, a Catholic. Hey was baptized in the Cathedral of Rheims. This loi was du immense sens in thé subsequent history de France et Western europe in general, pour Clovis broadened his dominance over almost all of auto old novel province ns Gaul (roughly contemporary France). He is considered auto founder both of la france (which his state closely resembled geographically at his death) and the Merovingian empire which ruled the Franks from auto mid-fifth to auto mid-eighth century. Merovingian régner was ended by a palace ballon in 751 once Pippin thé Short formally deposed Childeric III, beginning thé Carolingian monarchy.

Christianity take it root in the seconde century et third century, and became so firmly established passant par the fourth and fifth centuries that heilig Jerome composed that Gaul to be the only region "free indigenous heresy." la france obtained the title "Eldest daughter de the Church" (La fille ainée du l"Église), and the français would adopt this as justification pour calling themselves "the Most christian Kingdom ns France."

Charlemagne et the Holy roman Empire

The Carolingian empire was a Frankish noblesse family through its origins in thé Arnulfing et Pippinid clans of the seventh century. Auto name "Carolingian" itself comes from auto Latin spelling du Charles Martel, (686-741)—Carolus Martellus—who defeated the Moors at the Battle ns Tours in 732. Thé greatest Carolingian monarch to be Charlemagne (742 or 747 to 814), a champion du Christianity et supporter de the papacy. Charlemagne fought thé Slavs south du the Danube, linked southern Germany, et subdued and converted pagan saxons in the north-west. Charlemagne had himself crowned Emperor par Pope Leo iii at romain in 800, année event which restored the roman imperial douaniers in the west, and set a precedent pour the dependence of the emperors nous papal approval.

He is regularly seen oui the Father of Europe et is année iconic figure, instrumental in specifying European identity. His to be the sapin truly impérial power in the West since the fall of Rome.Latin was the official language of thé court et the Church, although thé West Franks in Gaul adopted auto Latinate vernacular that came to be French. East Franks and other Germanic toutes les personnes spoke miscellaneous languages that ended up being German. Carolingian rulers urged missionary work-related among auto Germans. Non-Frankish Germans, however, retained lot pagan belief beneath their newly gained faith.

Empire divided

Charlemagne"s third le sien Louis thé Pious (778–840) was Emperor and King of the Franks from 814 venir his fatality in 840. Under Frankish custom, all the king’s possessions, consisting of the royaliste title, to be divided amongst his sons, a exercise that regularly resulted in civil war. The surviving adult Carolingians battled a three-year poli war ending in the Treaty du Verdun (843), which split the empire among Charlemagne"s 3 grandsons. One received ouest Francia (modern France), another acquired the impérial title and a territory extending from auto North Sea to Italy, while the third, Louis auto German (804-876), received eastern Francia (modern Germany). Thé Treaty ns Mersen (870) divided auto middle kingdom, with Lotharingia going venir East Francia et the rest venir West Francia. In 881, Charles auto Fat (839-888) de East Francia, heir du Louis the German, obtained the de linterne title. Six years later he was deposed de Arnulf ns Carinthia (850-899), a bastard child ns a legitimate Carolingian king, thé last Carolingian emperor.

The Vikings et Normandy

Under thé Carolingians, thé kingdom to be ravaged passant par Viking raiders. In this battle some considérable figures such oui Count Odo of Paris et his brother king Robert rose venir fame and became kings. This arising dynasty, called the Robertines, was auto predecessor de the Capetian Dynasty, who were lower from the Robertines. Led by Rollo, auto Vikings had resolved in Normandy and were granted the sol first oui counts et then ont dukes passant par King Charles the Simple. The personnes that emerged from auto interactions between Vikings et the mélanger of Franks and Gallo-Romans ended up being known oui the Normans.

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The Capetians

The Carolingians ruled france until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke du France et Count du Paris, to be crowned king. Hey was recorded to be recognized king par the Gauls, Bretons, Danes, Aquitanians, Goths, Spanish et Gascons. Hugh had his le sien Robert crowned, as Robert ii in 996. His son, Henry, became roi in 1031. Auto Capetians ultimately passed the couronner through a habitent male line for more than three centuries, from 987 until 1328.

The french kingdom was an extremely decentralized. If the roi ventured outside de his very own territory, he risked being captured passant par his vassals. In the late eleventh century, vassals William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, and Hugh the Great, abbot du Cluny, were an ext powerful than the Capetian roi Philip ns (who reigned 1060-1108).

Philip’s successor, Louis using (who reigned 1108-1137), consolidated royal énergie in thé Île-de-France, a region centering on Paris, par suppressing feudal opposition. In 1137, cette arranged à la his son, the future Louis VII, to marry Eleanor, heiress to auto Duchy du Aquitaine, thereby obtaining control of extensive territories between the rer Loire et the Pyrenees Mountains. Luigi VII was well served passant par a skilled advisor, abbot Suger, whose vision of confinements became known ont the Gothic architectural during thé later Renaissance.

But thé marriage was no agreeable à Eleanor, adultery to be alleged, and she had not produced a male heir, sauce soja the marital relationship was annulled 1152. Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet, Count du Anjou and Duke of Normandy, who in 1154 became king of England ont Henry II. Aquitaine happen to thé English Crown, and the regions controlled de Henry ii in la france (the angle Empire) exceeded those du his feudal lord, luigi VII.

Later Capetians

Philip la deuxième année Augustus (1165-1223) was roi of france from 1180 until his death. Philippe was one of the many successful medieval français monarchs in expanding the royal demesne and the conséquences sur of auto monarchy. Cette broke up auto great angle Empire et defeated a syndicat of his rivals at the Battle ns Bouvines in 1214. Cette reorganized the government, pass financial security to the country et thus making faisabilité a sharp boost in prosperity. His power was renowned with ordinary toutes les personnes because hey checked the power of the nobles and passed some of it on to thé growing center class. Philip Augustus founded the sorbonne university et made parisien a ville of scholars.

His le sien Louis VIII directif a successful project that resulted in the développer of the royaliste domain south to the côte of thé Mediterranean Sea. Luigi IX (1215–1270), commonly heilig Louis, was roi of la france from 1226 to his death, nous a Crusade when cette was struck down par disease and died while attacking Tunis. He is the only canonized king of France. Hey established the Parlement de Paris. Philip iii (1245-1285), referred to as "the Bold," was declared roi at the âge of 25 as soon as his father died, and also died nous a Crusade. He arranged pour the marriage de his son to the heiress du Champagne, including that county to royalistes possessions.

Philip IV (1268-1314), dubbed "the Fair" was so powerful that cette could name popes and emperors, unlike auto early Capetians. Costly policies directif him à try venir tax thé clergy, and this in turn lugged him into sharp dispute with Pope Boniface VIII. In 1305, philippe secured auto election ns a français pope, Clement V. The papal meugler moved from romain to Avignon in 1309, and Philip was cleared of any charges of impropriety in your dealings with Boniface. Philip strengthened the royal government, and was the tons to summon auto Estates-General, année assembly du the different classes of french subjects, but his high-handed methods lost auditeur respect. His three sons -—Louis X, philippe V, and Charles IV—each held thé throne successively, and toutes les personnes died without masculine heirs

Hundred Years" War

Portrait ns Jacques Cartier de Théophile Hamel, ca. 1844. Non contemporary portraits ns Cartier room known.

The hundreds Years" war was a conflict between France et England, lasting 116 year from 1337 to 1453. It was combated primarily over claims by the English rois to the french throne. On the death ns Charles IV, thé French crown passed to philip IV’s nephew, Philip de Valois, that reigned ont Philip vi from 1328 to 1350. The English King edward II had married the daughter de Philip IV Isabella of la france without ordre problems, but her son dedouard III (who reigned 1327-1377) placed forward a claim in 1337 à the french throne oui the legitimate grandson of Philip auto Fair et the sole surviving masculine heir follow to auto law de primogeniture.

The hundred Years" war was punctuated par several brief and two lengthy periods of peace before it finally finished in the expulsion of the English indigenous France, v the exception of thé Calais. Thus, the war was in reality a series ns conflicts and is frequently divided right into three jaune four phases: the Edwardian battle (1337-1360), auto Caroline war (1369-1389), thé Lancastrian battle (1415-1429), et the sluggish decline of English fortunes after auto appearance du Joan of Arc. Throughout this war, la france evolved politically et militarily. Humiliating defeats of Poitiers (1356) et Agincourt (1415) compelled the français nobility to realize they might not stand just oui armored knights without année organized army. Charles VII established the tons French standing army.

Black Death

The black Death bubonic plague, one du the many deadly pandemics in human history, entered france via Marseille in 1348, et engulfed auto country in two years, death up venir one-third du the population. Auto plague recurred in 1361, 1362, 1369, 1372, 1382, 1388, et 1398. Kids were particularly vulnerable. Obsession with fatality pervaded, et fanatical religious movements spread. Peasants caught between high prices, et landlords who tried to increase production et freeze earnings rebelled, the most famous et widespread being thé Jacquerie uprising of 1358. Auto Estates-General, the assembly of clergy, nobles, et commoners life summoned par Philip IV et used oui a form parce que le the roi to current policy, got in power.

Joan du Arc

Joan of révérence (Jeanne d"Arc) (1412-1431) was a fifteenth century denchères heroine ns France. Joan asserted that she had vision from God i m sorry told sa to recover elle homeland indigenous English dominance late in thé Hundred Years" War. Auto uncrowned Charles VII of france sent sa to the siege at Orléans (1428-1429) as part de a relief mission. Elle gained importance when elle overcame thé dismissive attitude de veteran commanders and lifted the siege in seul nine days. Several much more swift victories dirige to Charles VII"s coronation at Reims et settled auto disputed succession to thé throne. A politically encouraged trial convicted elle of heresy et she was charred at thé stake when she was only 19 years old. The jugement was broken de the Pope et she was declared innocent et a martyr 24 years later.

Renaissance France

By 1500, france evolved from a feudal country to an increasingly central state organized roughly a powerful absolute monarchy the relied conditions météorologiques the doctrine du the divine Right of Kings et the explicit faire un don of the established Church. Auto Renaissance writer françois Rabelais (probably frontière in 1494) helped venir shape the français language as a literary language. During thé sixteenth century the french kingdom began to claim phibìc American territories oui colonies. Jacques Cartier was one du the great explorers who ventured deep right into American regions during the sixteenth century. Thé largest group of french colonies came to be known oui New France, et several urban such ont Quebec City, Montreal, Detroit et New olions were founded by the French.

Francis I

Francis ns (1494 - 1547), that is considered venir be France"s tons Renaissance monarch, substantially increased both thé power and the prestige of the Crown. Cette regarded himself oui the monarchy’s single lawmaker and never called auto Estates-General. He was a patron ns the arts et learning, and buildings surviving from his reign show the power and wealth of the monarchy. France engaged in the longue Italian wars (1494-1559), i beg your pardon marked thé beginning du early modern-day France. Francis je was captured at Pavia in 1525 by the Holy novel Emperor Charles V et later freed after granting concessions. The french monarchy ally with thé Ottoman Empire. Thé Ottoman Admiral Barbarossa captured joli in respectable 1543 and handed cette down venir Francis I.

During auto sixteenth century, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs to be the dominante power in Europe. Charles Quint, ont Count of Burgundy, Holy roman Emperor, king of Aragon, Castile et Germany (among many est différent titles) encircled France. The Spanish Tercio was provided with good success against french knights and remained undefeated parce que le a long time. Finally nous January 7, 1558, thé Duke de Guise seized Calais from auto English.

The Reformation

Lutheranism was presented in france after around 1520. Initially, roi Francis je was tolerant of religious reformers, but after thé Affair du the Placards in 1534, in i beg your pardon notices appeared in auto streets denouncing the Papal Mass, he began to view Protestants oui a threat and openly moved versus them. One french Protestant, homme Calvin (1509-1564), created auto doctrine et the agence of français Protestantism. Hey found asile in Geneva, where hey came venir hold great affecter on thé reform movement. During thé reign ns Henry ii (1547-1559), Calvinism gained many converts in france among the french nobility, thé middle class, et the intelligentsia. Back Huguenots accounted pour only a small fontaine of the french population, thé great wealth et influence the many du them possessed started to cause première bitterness. In 1559, delegates from 66 Calvinist congregations in la france met covertly at parisien in a national synod which drew up a confession de faith et a livre of discipline. Therefore was organized auto first denchères Protestant church du France.

Wars ns religion

The français Wars de Religion, (1562 to 1598) to be a series of conflicts in la france fought in between Catholics et Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the 16 century to thé Edict du Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. In enhancement to thé religious elements, they connected a struggle parce que le control over the ruling de the nation between thé powerful loger of Guise (Lorraine) and the Catholic League, conditions météorologiques the une hand, and the loger of Bourbon conditions météorologiques the other.

Renewed Catholic reaction headed passant par the an effective duke of Guise, dirige to a abattage of Huguenots at Vassy in 1562, beginning the sapin of the français Wars ns Religion, during which English, German, and Spanish renforcer intervened conditions météorologiques the side ns rival Protestant et Catholic forces. In the most notorious incident, thousands du Huguenots were murdered in auto St. Bartholomew"s Day abattu of 1572. Thé Wars du Religion culminated in thé War ns the 3 Henrys in i m sorry Henry iii assassinated Henry aux Guise, dirigeants of auto Spanish-backed Catholic league, et the king was murdered in return. Complying with this battle Henry iii of Navarre became king of France as Henry IV and enforced the Edict de Nantes (1598), i m sorry granted a degree du religious toleration venir Protestants.

Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu

Religious conflicts resumed under louis XIII (1601-1643) once Armand Jean ns Plessis, pinky Richelieu (1585-1642), thé effective ruler de France pour 18 years from 1624, required Protestants venir disarm. This problem ended in auto Siege of la Rochelle (1627-1628), in which Protestants and their English pendant were defeated. The following Peace de Alais confirmed religious freedom yet dismantled the Protestant defenses.

As a result of Richelieu"s work, luigi XIII became one du the sapin exemplars of an absolute monarch. Under luigi XIII, the français nobility was firmly retained in line behind your King, and the political and military privileges granted to thé Huguenots by his father were retracted (while their spiritual freedoms were maintained). Richelieu had executed numerous eminent and dangerous nobles et demolished castles that could be used as centers de resistance to du repos the political power du the nobility. Richelieu divided auto country into 30 new administrative districts and appointed a royalistes officer venir control each.

Richelieu joined auto Thirty year War conditions météorologiques the side de the Catholic Habsburgs in 1636 because it was the denchères interest, but imperial Habsburg force invaded France, ravaged Champagne, et threatened Paris. Richelieu died in 1642 and was replaced de Mazarin, while Louis XIII died une year later and was succeeded by Louis XIV, then aged five years. Thé French renforcer won a decisive victory at Rocroi (1643), et the Spanish military was decimated. Auto Truce of Ulm (1647) et the Peace ns Westphalia (1648) brought an end to auto war.

Louis XIV

Louis xiv (1638-1715), known oui Louis auto Great or the sun King, ruled ont King du France et of Navarre from 1643, a couple of months before his fifth birthday, but did not assume actual personal control de the federal government until thé death ns his sapin Minister Jules pinky Mazarin, in 1661. Louis would remain nous the throne it spins his death just prior venir his 77th birthday in 1715. Luigi established an absolute state structure early, with a alors of councils venir advise him and to lug out his instructions. Hey gave thé potentially dangerous the aristocracy ceremonial meugler positions, leaving them no time for political activity. Auto government"s positif promotion of commerce kept the wealthy bourgeoisie happy. The roi could appoint bishops, hence keeping regulate of an obedient clergy, that provided the theological justification of thé divine right de Louis XIV. Louis developed a great palace at Versailles, patronized the arts, established the academy of maigrir Arts and the French académie in Rome, sustained authors with pensions, appointed a superintendent of music to advanced standards, and established the academy of Science.

Louis’s minister pour commerce et finance, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, subsidized industries, limited étranger competition, developed colonie markets for French traders, rebuilt thé navy, and built roads, bridges, et canals. Cible the costs du Louis’s guerres unraveled much ns Colbert’s concis development. Climate in 1685, louis revoked the Edict of Nantes, prompting between 200,000 and 300,000 Huguenots à leave France, many de them skilled craftsmen, intellectuals, military officers whom la france could no afford à lose.

Eighteenth century France

Louis XV (reigned 1715-1774) sought escape in pleasure, discredited thé monarchy, et was haricot de soja unpopular that his body was buried secretly. His grandson, Louis xvie (reigned 1774-1792), to be weak-willed, et his jeune queen, marie Antoinette, frivolous et extravagant. In thé eighteenth century, france was the richest and most powerful pays on the Continent. French architecture, design, fashion, and taste to be imitated through auto Western world, while french political et social principles influenced Europe et America. It was a period de great economic growth. The country"s industrial transformation began in that century, when the france was the leading industrial énergie in the world.

But auto income du urban laborers et artisans, to be eroded de inflation, et peasants were greatly burdened passant par taxes, tithes, and feudal obligations. The tax system, i beg your pardon exempted the lands of the nobility and the clergy, deprived the government de a far-ranging source of revenue, et put an unfair burden nous the peasantry et the bourgeoisie.

Successive ministries tried to establish a balanced taxation système of toutes les personnes wealth, cible were blocked passant par privileged groups and by thé lack of soutien from the King. The nobility in thé parliaments directif opposition to royalistes initiatives, posing oui defenders of auditeur liberties, marqué were advocating a revenir to government by the aristocracy. The philosophes, français writers on political, social, and economic problems, commander intellectual opposition, saying that all people had bien sur natural rights-—life, liberty, et property—-and that governments existed à guarantee these rights.

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The War du the Austrian séries (1740-1748) and the seven Years’ war (1756-1763), to be costly. De 1763, france lost almost all of its vast colonie empire in les états-unis damérique and in India. Thé Vente ns la Louisiane Louisiana purchase vastly enlarged thé United States ns America. In 1778, the français became associated in thé American War ns Independence, versus Britain, hoping to recover lost colonies, but only managed venir increased année already heavy intérieur debt.