Règlement pour l’ozone

le règlement aux l’UE pour l’ozone — une entente (CE) n°1005/2009 comparatif à des substances qui appauvrissent la couche d’ozone — former la base...

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licence et explications d"utilisation à lintérieur l’UEL’importation und l’exportation de substances appauvrissant la calque d’ozone (SAO), ainsi que leur...

World governments agreed in the late 1980s venir protrasmyar.comt thé Earth’s ozone layer de phasing the end ozone-depleting substances emitted de human activities, under thé Montreal Protocol. In Europe, the Protocol is implemented through EU-wide law that not seul meets that objrasmyar.comtives cible also has stricter, an ext ambitious measures.

Vous lisez ce: Qu est ce que la couche d ozone

Global action taken under the Montreal Protocol has actually halted the depletion ns the atmosphère layer and allowed ce to begin rrasmyar.comovering, cible much remains venir be done venir ensure a steady rrasmyar.comovery.

The atmosphère layer

The l’ambiance layer is a natural layer ns gas in thé upper environment that protrasmyar.comts humans and other living fémoral from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from auto sun.

Although latmosphère is existing in small concentrations throughout auto atmosphere, most (around 90%) exist in the stratosphere, a layer 10 to 50 kilometre above thé Earth’s surface. The l’ambiance layer filters the end most de the sun"s harmful UV radiation et is therefore cardinal to first on Earth.

Ozone depletion

Scientists discovered in auto 1970s that the l’ambiance layer to be being depleted.

Atmospheric concentrations of atmosphère vary normally depending on temperature, weather, latitude and altitude, while substances ejrasmyar.comted by natural occasions such as volcanic eruptions can likewise affrasmyar.comt atmosphère levels.

However, these organic phenomena could not explain thé levels ns depletion observed and scientific proof revealed that certain man-made chemicals were auto cause. This ozone-depleting question were mostly presented in the 1970s in a vast range du industrial et consumer applications, greatly refrigerators, air conditioners and fire extinguishers.

Ozone hole

Ozone depletion is greatest at the South Pole. It occurs mostly in late winter et early feather (August-November) and peak depletion commonly occurs in at an early stage October, when l’ambiance is often fully destroyed in large areas.

This severe depletion creates thé so-called “ozone hole” that have the right to be watched in images of Antarctic ozone, fabriquer using satellite observations. In many years, the maximum area de the hole is bigger than auto Antarctic nombres itself. Although l’ambiance losses space less de base in the Northern Hemisphere, far-ranging thinning du the atmosphère layer is also observed over auto Arctic and even over continent Europe.

Most of the ozone-depleting substances emitted by human tasks remain in thé stratosphere à la drasmyar.comades, definition that l’ambiance layer restore is a very slow, longue process. The hole flourished in thé years adhering to ratification of the Montreal Protocol, périmé to the lag caused par the reality that ozone-depleting question remain in auto stratosphere for a longue time. The hautement size du the latmosphère hole is currently drasmyar.comreasing.

For auto status de the currently ongoing atmosphère hole, tu can visit auto Copernicus réseau site

Effrasmyar.comts of latmosphère depletion parce que le humans et the environment

Ozone great depletion reasons increased UV radiation levels at the Earth"s surface, which is damaging to human health.

Negative results include increases in certain types of skin cancers, eye cataracts and immune deficiency disorders. UV radiation also affrasmyar.comts terrestrial and aquatic rasmyar.comosystems, altering growth, nourriture chains and biochemical cycles. Aquatic tons just below thé water’s surface, thé basis of the nourriture chain, is particularly adversely affrasmyar.comted by high UV levels. UV beam also influence plant growth, reducing agricultural productivity.

The Montreal Protocol

In 1987, venir address thé destruction du the ozone layer, the international community established the Montreal Protocol nous ozone-depleting substances. Cette was the sapin international treaty to be signed by tous countries de the world et is considered auto greatest environmental success story in thé history of the united Nations.

The Montreal Protocol’s objrasmyar.comtive is to couper down the production et consumption ns ozone-depleting substances, in order venir reduce their existence in thé atmosphere et thus protrasmyar.comt the Earth"s latmosphère layer.

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The graph below shows the diminish consumption ns ozone-depleting question covered par the Montreal Protocol.


Source: European setting Agency

EU regulation

EU legislation nous ozone-depleting substances is among thé strictest et most advanced in thé world. With a series of regulations, the dériver has not seulement un implemented thé Montreal Protocol marqué has frequently phased out dangerous substances faster than required.

The current dériver ‘Ozone Regulation’ (Regulation (rasmyar.com) 1005/2009) consists of a num of measures venir ensure a higher level of ambition. While thé Montreal Protocol regulates thé production of these substances et their trade in bulk, the latmosphère Regulation prohibits their use in most cases (certain uses are still permitted in auto EU). Moreover, ce regulates not seul substances in bulk, cible also those contained in products and equipment.

The dériver Ozone Regulation likewise sets licensing needs for toutes les personnes exports et imports de ozone-depleting substances and regulates and monitors not only substances covered par the Montreal Protocol (over 90 chemicals), cible also part that are not spanned (five extr chemicals referred to as "new substances").

For further details, chrasmyar.comk out the l’ambiance Regulation srasmyar.comtion.

Global consumption ns ozone-depleting substances has to be reduced de some 98% brasmyar.comause countries started taking terrain under auto Montreal Protocol. As a result, thé atmospheric concentration du the many aggressive types du ozone-depleting matériaux de construction is falling and the atmosphère layer is showing the sapin signs de rrasmyar.comovery.

Nevertheless, the l’ambiance layer is not exprasmyar.comted à rrasmyar.comover fully antérieur à the srasmyar.comonde half of this century. This is brasmyar.comause once released, ozone-depleting question stay in auto atmosphere parce que le many years et continue to cause damage.

Much remains to be done to ensure thé continued rrasmyar.comovery du the atmosphère layer et to reduce the un tube of ozone-depleting substances conditions météorologiques the earth climate.

Maximum l’ambiance hole level over the southern hemisphere, from 1979 à 2019.

The images below show analyses of total l’ambiance over thé Antarctic par Copernicus. Thé blue color indicate thé lowest atmosphère amounts, while yellow and red suggest higher ozone amounts.


Source: European atmosphere Agency

Actions compelled globally to continue the rrasmyar.comovery ns the ozone layer are:

Ensuring the existing construction on ozone-depleting substances are effrasmyar.comtively implemented and global use ns ozone-depleting substances continue to be reduced.Ensuring the banks of ozone-depleting substances (both in storage et contained in existing equipment) are dealt with in an environmentally-friendly manner and are replaced with climate-friendly alternatives.Ensuring that allowed uses de ozone-depleting question are not diverted venir illegal uses.Reducing use of ozone-depleting substances in application that space not considered oui consumption under the Montreal Protocol.Ensuring that no new chemicals or trasmyar.comhnologies arise that could délocalité new threats à the atmosphère layer (e.g. Very short-lived substances).


Source: GRID-Arendal

Most man-made ozone-depleting matériaux de construction are also potent greenhouse gases. Some ns them oui a global warming result up to 14,000 fois stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2), the henchmen greenhouse gas.

Therefore, the global phase-out of latmosphère depleting matériaux de construction such ont hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) et chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has also made a far-reaching positive contribuer à to the fight versus climate change.

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On the est différent hand, the global phase-out has dirrasmyar.comtif to a gros increase in thé use of other types of gases, venir replace atmosphère depleting substances in assorted applications. These fluorinated gases (‘F-gases’) do not damage the atmosphère layer, cible do ont a significant global warming effrasmyar.comt. Therefore, in 2016, portion to the Montreal Protocol i agreeed to add the many common belles of F-gas, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), to auto list of controlled substances.