Rafle Du Vel D Hiv Photos

The Vélodrome d"Hiver (or "Vél d"Hiv") roundup was thé largest french deportation of Jews during thé Holocaust. Cette took place in Paris nous July 16–17, 1942.

Vous lisez ce: Rafle du vel d hiv photos


1

To maintain the fiction of a français police force independent du the German occupiers, french policemen carried out auto mass arrest de some 13,000 Jewish men, women, and children.

2

In order venir avoid a auditeur outcry on Bastille Day, a French national holiday, the roundup was relocated from July 13–15 à July 16–17.

le 3

The majority of those arrested to be deported à Auschwitz.


Background

*
After the français surrender à German renforcer in juin 1940, the Vichy routine (officially known oui the français State) changed the français Third Republic. Led by World War je hero Philippe Pétain, thé Vichy federal government collaborated actively with auto Nazi regime. It facilitated auto deportation de Jews not seulement un in the northern zonage occupied par German forces, but also in France"s free zonage in the south, which the German military occupied seulement un after the Allied invasion of North africa in November 1942.

Following the Wannsee conférence of January 20, 1942, German authorities prepared parce que le the deportation ns Jews from France and other ouest European countries. An initial transport ns more than 1,000 Jews left from Compiègne pour Auschwitz conditions météorologiques March 27, 1942. On peut être 29, 1942, German authorities issued a decree—to take result on june 7—that Jews in occupied france wear auto yellow star.

*
After securing the agreement ns the Vichy government, German officials and French officier de police conducted roundups ns Jews in both auto occupied and unoccupied zone of la france throughout thé summer du 1942. Thé Vél d"Hiv was part de a series du roundups codenamed opération Vent printanier (Operation spring Wind) the took place across the country in spring et summer de 1942.

Preparations pour the Roundup

Planning parce que le the Vél d"Hiv roundup took place among inhibe Bousquet, secretary général of auto French denchères police; luigi Darquier ns Pellepoix, Commissioner à la Jewish affairs under auto Vichy Régime; SS-Hauptsturmführer theodor Dannecker, head of adolf Eichmann"s Judenreferat (Jewish Section) in France; and SS-Oberstürmführer Helmut Knochen, head of the German Security policier in France.

In order to guarantee the intervention of the français police in thé roundups, Nazi officials agreed to se concentrer on foreign and stateless Jews, therefore initially sparing the français Jewish population from deportation.

The Director ns the local Paris municipal Police, Emile Hennequin, sent precise expectations parce que le the roundup to the police prefecture three days before the event. The roundup was originally set to take carré from July 13–15, which contained Bastille Day, the French national holiday. The holiday was not commemorated in the occupied zones du France, et in order to preclude local rioting, Nazi public official allowed français officials venir delay auto operation until July 16–17.

The German goal to be that french police would round up 28,000 foreign and stateless Jews in the greater parisien area. Lock were à exempt “sensitive cases” such ont British or American Jews. Return German authorities had actually originally agreed à exempt children under the âge of 16, French composants Minister roche Laval suggested parce que le “humanitarian” reasons that kids be arrested v their parents, uneven a household member continued to be behind to care parce que le them. 4 thousand children were among those arrested in Paris.

Voir plus: Qui Paie Les Travaux Dans Maison A Vendre, Maison À Vendre, M6 : Qui Paie Les Travaux

In order to maintain a comprehensive record of the roundup, the policier were to agissant the num of personnes they arrested every hour venir their local prefecture.

July 16–17

Beginning in the early hours of July 16, français police rounded up thousands ns men, women, et children transparent Paris. Passant par the end of the day, the officier de police had bring away 2,573 men, 5,165 women, et 3,625 kids from your homes. Thé roundup continued auto following day, cible with a much smaller alors of arrests.

Approximately 6,000 du those rounded up were immediately transported venir Drancy, in the northern suburbs of Paris. Bruit de conduite was at that mettre en ordre a transit stock for Jews gift deported indigenous France. Thé rest de the arrestees were detained at thé Vélodrome d"Hiver (Winter to ride bicycle Track), année indoor sporting arena in Paris"s fifteenth arrondissement.

Officials could have held couple of illusions of the unsuitability de the “Vél d"Hiv” pour holding together a taille population indefinitely. With auto outbreak du war in 1939, cette had been used à intern German nationals, largely German refugees. In 1940 ce housed interned étranger women. In both instances, conditions were deplorable.

*
Following auto roundup ns Jews in higher Paris, part 7,000 Jews, amongst them nearly 4,000 children, were crowded together in the sports arena. There was scarcely space à lie down et the incarcerated Jews confronted appalling circumstances. Ne sont pas arrangements had been made parce que le food, water, or sanitary facilities. Seulement un two medical professionals a shift were permitted in to treat the internees. Thé glass ceiling de the arena contributed to a stifling environment par day, as toutes les personnes ventilation had actually been sealed venir prevent escape, and led à chilly temperature at night.

Aftermath

After five days, Jews incarcerated at the Vél d"Hiv were moved to divers transit camps outside Paris. At Drancy, Pithiviers, and Beaune-la-Rolande, français police guarded this men, women, et children until transport venir concentration camps and killing centers in auto east. At the end du July, the remaining adults were separated from their children and deported à Auschwitz. Over 3,000 youngsters remained interned there is no their parents until they were deported, among adult strangers, à Auschwitz oui well.

German authorities continued the deportations ns Jews from french soil until August 1944. In all, some 77,000 Jews life on french territory perished in concentration camps et killing centers—the overwhelming majority ns them at Auschwitz.

Postwar Trials

For his prominent role in thé deportation of Jews indigenous France, roche Laval, formerly auto French compton Minister, was arrested and tried after the liberation of France. He was shot passant par firing squad nous 15 October 1945.

The fate de two German officials most connected in auto Vél d"Hiv mirrored the common fates ns high-ranking SS administrators. Confiance Dannecker was arrested passant par American public representative in mauvais Tölz, Bavaria, in December 1945, et committed suicidaire while in custody. Helmut Knochen, sentenced passant par a British court to 21 year in prison for a different offense, was sentenced to death par a French court in 1954. The sentence was commuted to first imprisonment, and Knochen was released nous orders of french President Charles ns Gaulle in November 1962.

Voir plus: Que Faut Il Faire Quand Les Poules Mangent Les Oeufs, Les Poules Qui Mangent Leurs Œufs

In 1949, rênes Bousquet, secretary aperçu of the french police, was uncovered guilty à la his duty in thé complicit Vichy government, but his la phrase was immediately commuted for "having actively et sustainably participated in thé resistance against the occupier."

In 1991, french justice authorities in parisien indicted Bousquet for his participation in auto deportation of Jews indigenous France. Le christianisme Didier, a mentally okay individual, assassinated Bousquet in his home in paris on juin 8, 1993, antérieur à proceedings might take place.

Acknowledging auto Role ns the State et Police

On July 16, 1995, nous the fifty-third anniversary du the Vél d"Hiv roundup, french President Jacques Chirac acknowledged thé role auto state et its policier had played in thé persecution ns Jews and other victims du the German occupation. “France,” Chirac said, “land ns the Enlightenment and of human being Rights, land of hospitality and asylum, France, nous that day, committed an irreparable act. Cette failed to keep its word and delivered those under its abrite to their executioners.”